PROJECT EXPLORE INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE #6 FOCUS QUESTION: WHAT LIVES IN ANTARCTICA AND HOW DO THEY SURVIVE? ............................................................................ Val Olness University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota BACKGROUND INFORMATION INHABITANTS There are no permanent inhabitants in Antarctica. What little exposed rock there is supports only sparse vegetation (mostly algae, lichens, and mosses), microbial life (bacteria and fungi), and a few hardy insects. While a great variety of insects, birds, and land mammals live in the high Arctic year round, only a handful of tiny invertebrates -- not a single land vertebrate -- can survive the Antarctic winter. There is an abundance of life in Antarctic waters -- waters generally considered to be those south of 60 degrees S. latitude. Seabirds, seals, penguins, and whales are perhaps the best known life forms -- consuming enormous quantities of fish, squid, and krill. Why are there no permanent inhabitants of Antarctica? Antarctica is the highest and coldest continent -- its average height is three times that of other continents (4,900 meters above sea level) and it is by far the coldest continent with minimum temperatures considerably lower than the Arctic. In the vicinity of the South Pole, the average annual temperature is minus 49 degrees Celsius, and the coldest temperature ever recorded on Earth was recorded at the Soviet outpost Vostok Station, which has the dubious distinction of being known as the "coldest place on Earth". On 21 July 1983 a record low temperature of -89.6 degrees C. (-125.8 degrees F.) was recorded and this did not take into account "wind chill!" The fierce winds characteristic of the area push the harsh temperatures down even further. Moreover, for nearly six months per year, the sun does not rise above the horizon, making an already inhospitable environment even more cheerless. How does anything survive in this hostile environment for even part of the year? By developing, over time, special adaptations that have enabled them to become better suited to this environment. WHAT LIVES IN ANTARCTICA? The Antarctic Sea is rich with life, unlike the land, and the life forms that survive do so because they get their food from the sea. KRILL -Very important form of plankton or sea life. -Small, red, shrimp-like creature. -Provides food source for most of the other life forms. Other Plankton: -A profusion of other algae and plankton survive under the ice forming, along with krill, the basis for the Antarctic ecosystem. -At the sea bottom live many marine animals and plants: giant sponges, sea urchins, sea spiders, starfish, corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and shellfish FISH -Approximately 100 species of fish live in the Southern Ocean south of the Antarctic Convergence (where the colder water meets the warmer water). SEALS Six seal species live in the Antarctic waters and are (along with whales) the most significant food consumers. Five of these species are true, or earless seals, without external pinnae. These are Weddell, Leopard, Crabeater, Ross, and the Elephant Seal. The sixth species is the Southern Fur Seal, which belongs to the sea lion family -- the group of seals with external ears. The Weddell, Leopard, Crabeater and Ross seals occupy the pack ice regions around the Antarctic continent and none of these species have been exploited to any degree for either their skins or animal products. WEDDELL SEAL -Occupies the last-ice environments close to the Antarctic continent, close to the scientific bases. -Reaches nine feet in length and can weigh as much as 900 pounds. -Lives in colonies, buried under the ice for much of the winter, coming to the surface only to rest and for air, through holes it has carved with its canine and incisor teeth. -Feeds mostly on cod and silverfish which are deep water fish, thus they have developed the ability to dive to great depths. -No predator except man (occasionally killing to feed sled dogs). CRABEATER SEAL -Not as big and form family groups. -Spend their entire life in the pack ice region and almost never haul out on shore. -Most abundant of the seals, feeding on krill almost exclusively. -Because whales are declining there is more krill and thus the crabeater is on the increase. -Two main predators in the evolution of the crabeater -- the Killer Whale and the Leopard Seal. -The Killer Whale actively seeks Crabeaters of all ages, while the Leopard Seal preys primarily upon newly weaned pups or animals in their first year of life; this predator pressure is thought to play a major evolutionary role in the Crabeater Seal's life history patterns, particularly during the mating and pupping seasons. LEOPARD SEAL -Largest of the Antarctic seals. -Predatory activities have made it infamous; they regularly kill warm-blooded animals, as well as feeding on fish and krill. -Hang around penguin colonies where, in late summer, they prey heavily on young penguins as they go to sea for the first time. -They often lie along the shoreline waiting for these young, naive penguins to enter the water. ROSS SEAL -Least known of all the Antarctic seals. -Feed on fish and krill. WHALES -Are mammals -- they breathe air, maintain a constant body temperature, and have hair at some stage of development. -Swim thousands of miles from other oceans to visit the Antarctic seas, where they fatten themselves on krill and fish; for example, a blue whale can eat three tons of krill every day. -There are two types of whales: Baleen whales and toothed whales. -Baleen whales live on krill which they "filter" through baleen plates in their mouths. -The toothed whales have small peg-like teeth and eat mainly fish -The killer whale eats small penguins which it likes to tip off ice floes. PENGUINS The penguin family is widely distributed in the cooler waters of the southern oceans. The largest concentrations and greatest numbers of species occur in the cold temperate, subpolar and polar waters. Almost every Antarctic and sub-Antarctic island has more than one resident species. However, penguins are never found in the Arctic; they have never migrated out of the Southern Hemisphere, and the northernmost penguins live close to the Equator at the Galapagos Islands. There are seventeen different species of Penguins, four of these -- the Emperor, Adelie, Chinstrap and Gentoo -- breed on the Antarctic mainland. Most of the others live on rocky islands in the Antarctic Ocean. There have been penguins on earth for about 50 million years. It is possible that long ago they could fly, but we don't know for sure. -Six species of penguins live in Antarctica feeding in the rich coastal waters -- these are the Emperor, the King, the Adelie, the Gentoo, the Chinstrap, and the Macaroni penguins. -They have no predators on land and are, therefore, friendly towards humans. -In the Antarctic waters however, the Leopard Seal and the Killer Whale prey on the small breeds of penguins and the young, naive penguins out for their first swims. -A penguin is a bird, but it doesn't fly -- it has flippers instead of wings for obtaining its food. EMPEROR PENGUIN -Largest of the living penguins at around 110cm (4 feet) and 31-36kg (70-80 lb.). -They are very strong, capable of breaking a man's arm with a single blow from their flipper. -In March, the beginning of the Antarctic fall, the Emperor Penguins come in from the sea, shortly after the sea ice has formed. -They waddle over the ice to last year's breeding ground -- the rookery -- where they mate. -The female lays her single egg (weighing about one pound) in May or June (the middle of the bitter Antarctic winter). -She does not build a nest, but lays the egg on her feet as she stands on the ice. -Then she passes the egg to the male, not allowing it to crack or freeze and so kill the embryo. -The female then leaves the rookery, walking back across the ice to the sea, so she can get food and winter at sea. -The egg is then incubated by the male on his feet tucked under a flap of skin for the next two months. -The male Emperor penguin is the only warm-blooded animal to spend the bitter winter on the Antarctic continent. -They huddle together throughout the coldest months, in temperatures that fall below -40 degrees C., through blizzards and hundred-mile-an-hour winds. -They stand, shoulders touching, sharing their body heat, changing positions in the group from time to time, so that no one penguin stays out at the colder, exposed edge of the group for too long. -When the eggs are about to hatch, the mother returns and the father carefully passes the egg back to the mother penguin. -Now it is the father's turn to walk to the sea for food; he has not eaten for about three months and has been living off reserve fat, losing about 40% of his body weight. -When the chick hatches out of the egg, it sits where it is, on its mother's feet; she feeds it regurgitated food that she brings up from her stomach. -When the male penguin returns the mother and father penguin take turns feeding the chick, which quickly grows larger and stronger. -Very quickly all the chicks are grouped together where they are guarded by other adult penguins so that the mothers and fathers can go looking for food. -In about five months, the young penguins grow adult feathers then all the penguins leave the rookery and walk to the sea. -It is time for the young penguins to practice swimming, diving and catching fish. -It is at this time that the leopard seals are lying in wait in the water; only one out of four chicks lives to become an adult. -The swimming penguins climb on ice floes and drift up to more northern waters where they swim and fish and fatten up. -In March they will swim back to Antarctica, walk to the rookery, and the whole cycle begins again. KING PENGUIN -Are similar to the Emperors but smaller. -They are the most colorful, with vivid golden auricular (ear) patches, purple or lilac mandibular plates, blue-gray dorsal plumage, and lemon-yellow or white breast and abdomen. -They are widespread throughout the sub-Antarctic and feed mainly on fish and squid which they catch below the surface of the water. GENTOO, CHINSTRAP & ADELIE PENGUINS -All belong to the genus Pygoscelis. -Smaller penguin, about half a meter tall (18-20 inches), slate-gray and white with long brush-like tail feathers. MACARONI PENGUIN -Not common in the Antarctic. OTHER SEABIRDS -Although the penguin is the best known bird of the Antarctic, there are many others which more closely resemble our idea of what a bird should be. -The largest group of seabirds in the Antarctic are the petrels. -The smallest is the storm petrel, weighing one to two ounces; it feeds at sea, folding its wings vertically, giving it the appearance of walking on water. -The largest is the albatross, which can weigh up to 21 pounds and have a wing span of 12 feet. -It can remain at sea for months as it sleeps on the water and drinks sea water. -It can fly at speeds of 60 mph and with a favorable wind may reach speeds as great as 100 mph. -Another great bird traveler among the sea birds is the Arctic tern, which flies farther in its migration than any other bird known. -Each year it travels from the edge of the Arctic Ocean to the pack ice of Antarctica, a distance of some 22,000 miles; it seems to follow the light, fleeing the northern Arctic winter to enjoy a brief Antarctic summer. -In late February, at the first indication of the south polar sunset, it heads north again. -No trees grow in Antarctica so birds have to make their nests in other places such as nest-scrapes in the ground in ice-free spots near the shore or in cracks on high, rocky cliffs. -Gulls and cormorants build elaborate nests of moss, lichens, and kelp; giant petrels build nests of empty limpet shells; penguins build nests of small stones and pebbles. PERMANENT CONTINENT INHABITANTS -On the whole great white Antarctic continent, the only creatures that really live on the land are insects. -Midges and mites live in patches of moss that grow on rocky mountain sides, in spots that are sheltered from the wind. -The insect eggs stay frozen all winter, and thaw and hatch the next year. -The moss they live in often grows near bird rookeries, where it is fertilized by bird excrement -- called "guano." -Ticks and lice also live on the sea birds, penguins, and seals • the largest land-living creature on the entire continent is the wingless fly, about six mm long (about 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch). ADAPTATIONS In order to survive the harsh climate the many varieties of Antarctic species have adapted to the environment. Adaptation is an evolutionary change that allows an organism to function better in a given environment. An adaptation is a structure, function, or behavior of an organism that helps in its survival or reproduction. It is almost a miracle of nature that these animals can survive. One of the main reasons is that they have adapted to obtaining food from the sea -- the Antarctic sea is filled with food. FLIPPERS -Seals have flippers instead of legs and penguins have flippers instead of wings. -Flippers have enabled seals and penguins to adapt to their life at sea • flippers help make them good swimmers for catching fish and krill and for escaping predators. -The Leopard Seal (predator) can swim faster than penguins (prey) but the penguins are more agile and can zig-zag and dodge, so if the penguin has a head start, it can escape -- swimming fast at an upward angle, popping six feet in the air, and landing on the ice where it is safe. INSULATION -Whales, seals, and penguins are all fat; their fat (or blubber) adapts them to their life in the cold Antarctic. -The penguin has fatty tissue under its skin and feathers, that are short and close fitting and also provide insulation against the cold. -The feathers are arranged in such a way that they trap air to provide insulation and resist wind movement. -Plumage insulation provides about 80% of the total insulation of penguins and the feathers give out an oily substance which repels water and also helps to keep body heat in. -Plumage insulation is reinforced by subdermal fat which is found in all healthy penguins but reaches its greatest thickness in Emperor penguins (2-3 cm) and Adelies (1-2 cm). -When plumage and subdermal fat are exerting their greatest insulation efficiency, outward flow of heat is very slight. -Snow settling against the plumage of resting birds usually remains unmelted, forming an outer crust which further protects the birds from cold and wind. -The seal also has fatty tissue under its skin which retains heat; it has hair (a characteristic mammalian feature) -- out of the water, hair forms an effective insulation by trapping a stationary layer of air which is soon warmed by the body temperature. -In the water the air is driven out but the hair still retains a stable water layer which reduces heat loss. -The hair secretes an oily substance which adds to the insulative properties of the hair. -Another important function of fat is to act as a food reserve; because of their extensive blubber layer -- developed primarily as a means of heat conservation -- seals are able to undergo prolonged periods of fasting. ANTIFREEZE Many of the fish in Antarctic waters have a body chemical in their blood that resembles antifreeze -- a glycopeptide -- that prevents body fluids from freezing that enables them to live in cold, deep water. HABITAT The ability to live most or all of their life in water is added protection as water provides yet another kind of insulation. OBJECTIVES: PROCESS OBJECTIVES 1-The students will be able to describe the lack of permanent inhabitants in Antarctica. 2-The students will be able to identify the various adaptations and explain how each enables a life form to better survive in the cold. CONTENT OBJECTIVES 1-The students will understand that there are no permanent inhabitants in Antarctica other than a few insects. 2-The students will understand that there is an abundance of life in Antarctic waters which include the following: Whales Penguins Seals Fishes Seabirds 3-The students will learn that various adaptations enable the life forms to survive in Antarctica. -Insulation for keeping warm -- blubber, hair, feathers. -Flippers for swimming -- to obtain food and escape predators. -Ability to survive in water which helps keep them warm. -"Antifreeze" in circulation system of fishes to prevent freezing. -Anatomical adaptations for ease in obtaining food. EQUIPMENT OR MATERIALS ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY -Pictures or drawings of Antarctic life forms (5th/6th grade). -Pictures or drawings of life forms not found in Antarctica. -Small cards with the names of Antarctic life forms and non-Antarctic life (8th/9th grade). -Outline maps of Antarctica with surrounding oceans illustrated (I drew them freehand on an artists' large sketch pad). -Adaptation" chart (see Activity). CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #1 -8 oz. yogurt containers with lids. -24 oz. cottage cheese containers with lids. -Celsius thermometers. -100ml graduated cylinders. -Rectangular pieces of 2.5cm thick (or thicker) foam rubber, approximately 21cm x 28cm. -Scissors. -Masking or electrical tape. -Heavy winter thermal socks, mittens, or scarves. -Saline solution. -Graph paper. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #2 -Small test tubes. -250ml beakers. -Distilled water, antifreeze. -Crushed ice/rock salt mixture CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #3 -Orange or yellow construction paper. -Large cardboard boxes. -Straw or shredded paper. -Stop watches. -Glue and tape EXPLORATION/ASSESSMENT OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Note: The following information was obtained from a "clinical interview" situation involving eighth graders. As you prepare to teach this module, you should be aware that: 1-The students seem to have a good understanding that the interior of the continent is too cold and lacks vegetation, and therefore, no life can be found there. 2-The students correctly identified whales, penguins, seals, and fish as inhabitants of the ocean and continent's edge. 3-The students' ideas of adaptations seem to be strictly limited to "blubber." Some of the misconceptions are: 1-Polar bears, reindeer, wolves, moose (occasionally) live there; the polar bear is a consistent misconception. 2-Birds couldn't live there because there is nothing to eat. 3-Penguins were covered with hair rather than feathers. Some students seemed surprised to realize the penguin was a bird. 4-An "alternative" misconception rather than an outright misconception is that everything eats fish (i.e. fish are the only food resource). EXPLORATION ACTIVITY This is an activity designed to stimulate student interest in the topic and provide an indication of students' prior knowledge of the topic. The information is important for determining the starting point and level of difficulty for instruction. Note: Use this assessment in a cooperative grouping manner. 1-Using a map with the Steger Expedition route illustrated, discuss the direction of travel and locate the approximate present location. 2-Ask the students to answer the question: "If you were traveling with the Steger Expedition across Antarctica, what animals do you think you would see? Would you find animals anywhere else? If so, where would they be and what do you think they would be? Have the groups of students discuss this between themselves and then plot the populations on the map as they see fit. 3-Provide each student or group of two to three students, with an outline map of Antarctica and either small pictures or name cards of various animals and life forms. 4-Alternatively, the students could use numbers and a key to locate the life forms. This could be done by choosing from a prepared list (including life forms not present there) or by simply letting the students generate their own ideas. 5-Ask the groups to discuss how they think these animals can survive in the extreme cold. Have the group "secretary" write down those adaptations, explaining how the groups think they work. CHART FOR ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY ____________________________________________________________ |Adaptation |How It Works |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ |_____________________________|_____________________________ 6-Do this on the day previous to beginning the module and use the students' ideas as the basis for a beginning activity. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITIES There are concept invention activities related to what lives in Antarctica (Part A) and how they survive (Part B). Select one or more activities from each part. PART A CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #1 WHAT LIVES IN ANTARCTICA AND WHEN? -Use "Brainstorming" and Socratic Discussion to establish exactly what life forms are found in Antarctica and when. -Begin with questions developed from the assessment activity. Need to establish: -Whales migrate there to feed on large populations of krill. -Seals remain there year-round but predominantly in the Antarctic waters. -Penguins are there year-round but spend much of the winter in the Antarctic waters. -Seabirds spend part of their life there. -Fish are in the waters in abundance. -Krill provide the main diet for the other animals. -Need to emphasize that life forms of the Arctic are not necessarily found in the Antarctic, specifically polar bear, reindeer, wolves, and moose. -Need to emphasize that penguins are a Southern hemisphere life form and that polar bear are a Northern hemisphere life form. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #2 WHAT LIVES IN ANTARCTICA AND WHEN? This could be done in cooperative groups. -Have students go to the library and do a research project on "What lives in Antarctica and When?" without worrying too much about the adaptations. -This can be made simple (naming the life forms) or complex (some detail on each life form) -- teachers use discretion. -Teacher can use this information for further Socratic discussion. PART B CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #1 ADAPTING TO THE COLD The Antarctic animals spend part of their time on the edge of the ice and part of their time in the water, or entirely in the water. Somehow they survive -- they have adapted to their cold biome. In this investigation, you will see two ways that animals are protected from the extreme temperatures of their biome. MATERIALS Each group of students will need: -Three 250 ml containers with lids (8 oz. yogurt cartons, for example). -Two 750 ml containers with lids (24 oz. cottage cheese cartons work well)/ -Three thermometers (Celsius). -One graduated cylinder. -One piece of 2.5cm thick (or thicker) foam rubber, approximately 21cm x 28cm. -Scissors, tape. -Piece of winter clothing such as a heavy sock, a mitten, or scarf. -Saline solution at room temperature. PURPOSE To see how animals adapt to long-term exposure to cold. I. INSULATION Procedure 1-Mark the small containers 1, 2, and 3. These represent your "animals." 2-Measure 125 ml. of 45°C water into each small container. The water in each "animal" should be the same temperature. 3-Carefully punch a hole in each lid, just large enough to insert the thermometer. 4-Insert the thermometers and close each lid. 5-Leave "animal 1" as is to represent no fat or fur/feathers layer. Wrap "animal 2" in the foam jacket (secure with tape) and "animal 3" in the piece of winter clothing. These represent two different kinds of cold weather adaptations (blubber layer and fur/feathers layer). 6-Ask students for predictions at this point. Which "animal" do you think will stay the warmest? Which "animal" do you think will cool the fastest? 7-Record the temperature of the "animals" every two minutes for 16 minutes (this can be changed if teacher chooses). 8-This activity may be done in the classroom. However, on a cool day, the results would be much more dramatic if students work outdoors. 9-Record temperatures in form of Data Table 1. Animal | 1 | 2 | 3 _________________________________|___________|____________|_______________ | | | | |Time |Temperature |(Naked) | (Foam) |(Winter Fabric) |_____________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_0___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_2___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_4___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_6___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_8___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |10___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |12___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |14___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |16___________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ |_____________|_________________|___________|_____________|_______________ 10-Draw a graph making a line for each "animal" (using a different color or symbol for each "animal"). Plot time on the x axis and temperature on the y axis. 11-Questions to ask after the lab: a-What effect does a layer of insulation have on the temperature of a warm-blooded animal? b-How does a layer of insulation keep the animal warm? (Prevents loss of body heat). c-In the experiment, the temperature continued to fall even with the best insulator. How do you think the Antarctic animals make up for this loss? (Metabolic energy-body uses food to produce heat energy.) II. HABITAT If the temperature in the Antarctic winter averages -50 degrees C, most animals need more protection than just insulation. Seals and penguins spend most of their time in the water with the whales and fish. Does this provide more protection? PROCEDURE 1-Set up 2 small containers with hot water as before, to represent "animal 1" and "animal 2". "Animal 1" will remain on the edge of the ice surrounded only by the cold air but out of the wind, so put it inside one of the larger containers. Poke a hole in the lid of the large container and put a thermometer through both holes. (You now have a small, closed container containing warm water inside a larger closed container containing air with the thermometer in the smaller container.) 2-"Animal 2" will spend much of its time in the water, so set up the containers as for "animal 1" but put the saline solution in the larger container (to represent an animal surrounded by salt water). 3-Ask students for predictions at this point - In which container do you think the animal will stay the warmest? 4-Record the temperature as in Part A in Data Table 2. (This part of the investigation is definitely more dramatic and effective if done outside.) 5-Draw a second graph with a line for each animal as before. QUESTIONS TO ASK AFTER THE LAB: 1-Which "animal" cooled fastest? 2-What is the best estimate of the temperature of this "animal" after 30 minutes? (Calls for extrapolation of graph.) 3-What temperature will eventually be reached by both "animals?" (Temperature of surroundings.) 4-How does spending most, or all, of their life in the ocean help an animal survive in the Antarctic? (Provides insulation to prevent heat loss.) CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #2 ADAPTING TO THE COLD Fish in the Antarctic waters have a chemical in their blood -- glycopeptide -- that resembles the antifreeze that we put in our car radiators. Does this chemical help the fish survive? MATERIALS Each group of students will need: -Two small test tubes. -Two 250ml beakers. -25ml distilled water. -10ml antifreeze. -Crushed ice/rock salt mixture. PURPOSE To see what effect "antifreeze" has on a liquid in very cold temperatures. PROCEDURE 1-Mark the test tubes 1 and 2. These represent your "fish". 2-Measure 10ml of distilled water into test tube 1 and 5ml of distilled water into test tube 2. 3-Carefully measure 5ml of antifreeze and add to test tube 2. 4-Pack ice/rock salt mixture into beakers - about three quarters full. 5-Put a test tube into each of the beakers. 6-Ask students for predictions at this point. -Which "fish" will freeze? 7-Make observations at one minute intervals until you observe a major physical change in one, or both "fishes." 8-This activity is designed for the classroom and need not be done outdoors. Physical State __________________________________________________| | | | | |Time | Test Tube 1 | Test Tube 2 | |_____________|_________________|_________________| |_0___________|____Liquid_______|____Liquid_______| |_1___________|_________________|_________________| |_2___________|_________________|_________________| |_3___________|_________________|_________________| |_4___________|_________________|_________________| 9-Questions to ask after the lab: a-What effect does the antifreeze have on the liquid in the test tube? (Stops it from freezing.) b-How does this help the Antarctic fish live in its environment? (Prevents its blood from freezing and, therefore, keeps it functioning.) c-If the environment is so cold, how do you think the Antarctic fish generate heat in order to function? (Metabolic energy -- body uses food to produce heat energy.) EXTENSION ACTIVITY (For further investigation) Interactions Among Living Things Penguin researchers have reported the possibility of increased metabolic rates in penguins under constant observation, particularly when sitting on eggs or new hatchlings. In this investigation you will observe whether there is a tendency for a change in behavior to occur in an animal under observation. MATERIALS Each group of students will need: -Large cardboard box with straw (this will be the "nest" and, therefore, should be large enough to sit in). -Orange/yellow construction paper to make penguin bills. -Stopwatch. -Glue, tape, etc. to make the penguin bills. -Notebook of paper for recording observations. PURPOSE To see what effect constant observation by a one species has on another species. PROCEDURE 1-The group should select a "penguin" to be observed, the other two will act as scientists. 2-If permission can be obtained, place the "nests and penguins" in strategic locations in high traffic areas, such as close to the lunchroom during a lunch hour. 3-Roles and Observations -- "Penguin" -- the student will sit on the "nest" during the high traffic time without making any comments to passersby. "Penguin" will take note of his/her emotions and reactions during this time. Using a stopwatch, one "scientist" will record the pulse rate of the penguin before the experiment begins and then quickly after the observation time is over. The role of the second "scientist" will be to observe the behavior of both the "penguin" and the passers -- by during the experiment and note the observations (ethnographic data). If time permits, the roles could be switched and the activity repeated for one or two more days. The results could then be combined and a conclusion reached. 4-The observation time should last about ten minutes. 5-After the observations are over, the group should discuss their results and what they mean. QUESTIONS TO ASK AFTER THE EXPERIMENT: 1-What happened to the pulse rate of the student under observation? 2-What kind of behaviors did the student under observation exhibit? 3-What kind of behaviors did the "observers" exhibit as they passed by? 4-As the student under observation, describe the reactions you had to the passersby. 5-How can you interpret these results and how could you apply them to penguin behavior? 6-Predict what might happen to the penguin colonies in the future if this observation behavior continues. APPLICATION ACTIVITY Select one or both of the following activities to provide students with practice applying their new knowledge. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1 Note: This can be done as a cooperative group. ADAPTATION IN TWO HUSKY SLED DOGS A husky sled dog, part of a dog team that scientists in Antarctica use, gives birth to two puppies. As part of an experiment scientists take one puppy to Southern California and leave the other one in Antarctica. Two years later, the dogs are reunited for sled dog training. The scientists note that both dogs have thick, furry coats. However, the Antarctic-raised dog has soft, thick fur on its stomach while the California dog does not. The California dog has almost bare, pink skin showing on its stomach. ESSAY Write an explanation of why you think this happened. Think about these things as you are writing: -How does fur on the stomach help the Antarctic dog? -How does fur on the head, back, sides, and legs help the California dog? -How does lack of fur on the underside help the California dog? APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2 CREATING AN ANTARCTIC LIFE FORM This can be performed individually or in a cooperative group. -Invent a new life form that you think could survive on the land year round in Antarctica. -Think about the adaptations you have learned about. -Draw and label a diagram of your new life form. -Describe your new life form and its adaptations and how they will help it survive. -If time permits have students make a paper mache model and paint it. EVALUATION ESSAY TEST In this essay students should answer the following questions: 1-What life forms are found in the Antarctic, where are they found, and why are they found there? 2-What adaptations enable the life forms to survive and how do they work? 3-What are the similarities and the uniqueness of the adaptations? 4-How are the Antarctic life forms and Arctic life forms alike? Different? Students should support their claims with experimental results whenever possible.